The Etching Methods of PCB Fabrication

One of the methods performed for PCB fabrication is etching. It is the chemical process of taking out the excess copper from the plated board. A mask should be placed in order to avoid removing the parts of the copper that need to stay after the etching process. These parts that stay on the plated board are the remnants that hold electric current between the devices.

In PCB fabrication, there are various techniques to prepare the plated board before going through the etching process:

1. Direct Draw

PCB fabricationThe direct draw etching technique makes use of a resist pen to manually draw the circuit. It may also utilize dry transfers or specialty tapes where the users can layout their circuit traces right onto the board’s copper surface. The pen method depends on the water resistant attribute of the ink and the imperviousness of the plastic tapes both prevent the etchant from reaching the copper underneath. Thus, aside from the copper around the layout, all are etched away. This is actually the fastest method of transferring a circuit pattern to the plated board. The downside of this technique, however, is that it is hard to accurately place the traces, particularly when IC packages are used in the design. In addition, because the ink does not apply evenly, there is a threat that the traces are going to be etched away considering that the etchant can reach the copper. Making a mistake would mean having to start all over again. This is why direct draw method can only utilized to make super simple, low-definition printed circuit boards.

2. Photographic

Most professionals recommend this etching method for PCB fabrication. In this process, a board is coated with a resist substance that sets up whenever subjected to Ultra Violet light. To be able to produce this kind of board, the user need to create a positive ultra violet translucent artwork film of the opaque layout where a circuit trace should appear, and clear where a circuit trace should not appear. As soon as the positive photo film is constructed from the artwork, stick it onto the refined board, and expose it to the ultraviolet light. This light passes through the clear sections of the film and programs the photo resist. Then, immerse the board into a special fluid that develops the film and take out the refined photo resist. The remaining resist takes the form of the artwork that presents the circuit. The good thing about this approach is that it is more accurate and the traces are neat. Plus, the artwork film can be reused again and again to produce more boards.

It is definitely impossible to obtain a good quality board without having good artwork. For this reason, it is crucial to attain the best quality possible during this period. To be able to achieve this, it is essential to have a clear sharp picture with an incredibly solid unintelligible opaque black.

These days, PCB fabrication artwork will, more often than not, be drawn using either an appropriate sketching or graphics package, or a unique printed circuit board CAD program.

The artwork should be printed in such a way that the printed side comes in contact with the surface of the PCB when exposing. This is to prevent getting blurry edges. In practice, this signifies that if the user makes a design for the board as viewed from the opposite side, the solder side layer needs to be printed the ‘right’ way round. The top side, on the other hand, of the double-sided board should be printed in a mirror manner. The quality of the artwork in PCB fabrication is extremely influenced by both the media used as well as the output device.

Why Motivational Speakers are Effective

There is always something in human nature that gravitates towards beauty, truth, and purpose. Discontentment and unhappiness set in if aperson does not get his fill on all three. His life has to have a sense of purpose or direction. His life has to have beauty and meaning. He must also know certain truths in order to understand life and the world. In the absence of one of these, he will feel that he was born to suffer—to suffer in his meaninglessness, ignorance, and squalor.

Motivational SpeakersIt is easy to feel that life has no purpose or meaning. It is also easy to find ugliness in the world. Working eight to ten hours a day doing the same thing over and over can always make one feel the aimlessness of life. However, businesses require tasks to be done according to what they require. Employees are therefore always required to do what is asked and assigned. A majority of people in the rank and file may find it demoralizing that they have to do the same things over and over when perhaps new technology can be devised to take their place. The task may kill their creativity and dull their intelligence if it is too repetitive and does not require intellect.

Even members of management may feel the same way if the procedures and protocol do not call for their initiative and participation.

Low morale in the workplace can be very contagious. If it spreads, people lose their focus on their work. Some may think of leaving their jobs. Others will be in despair thinking of their unfortunate fate. A work environment with such low spirits will mean low productivity and quality. Once this is identified, companies must act to lift the spirits of its employees, otherwise, the business will suffer.

Companies benefit a lot from hiring motivational speakers to boost the morale of their employees. Motivational speakers are effective in doing this.

Here are the reasons why:

They give them hope.

It is too easy for employees to feel stuck in their present jobs and career paths. Doing the same job over and over again for years may start to feel that one is not getting any progress. However, motivational speakers will tell employees about the power of compounding. If one has served over the years and has endured stressful situations at work, that person has more in terms of knowledge, experience, and character. Therefore, although a person may feel stuck, he is actually a work in progress—ready for bigger things.

Theytell employees that there are many ways to grow. They encourage employees to do their jobs excellently because it stretches them and they become more capable of taking greater responsibilities.

They radiate positivity.

Motivational speakers radiate positive energy. They tell their audience that they too can have it if they think positive thoughts. They explain that thinking positive thoughts mean counting one’s blessings and having the faith to overcome problems. Some speakers even appeal to religious beliefs to bring home this point. In order not to be overcome by negativity is to have faith that problems and even misfortune can be overcome.

They emphasize altruism.

Corporate culture is tough. There are companies where aspirants to climbing the corporate ladder believe that to succeed will mean eradicating their competition and enemies at all costs. One must be tough enough to ignore or quiet his conscience in order to fulfill his dream. This creates an environment that is rife with tension and conflict.

Motivational speakers are very good at emphasizing that in order to succeed, one must give what one wishes to obtain. Therefore, if one must climb the corporate ladder, he must also help and lift others to climb it. They bring back the faith that ethical practice, in the end, still wins.

They are truly excellent in empowering and motivating employees. They teach people to look for the beauty and purpose in their lives. They also remind people of certain truths that seem to have been forgotten.

A Peaceful Life in Massapequa

Living in Massapequa is always a desirable American aspiration and it is always a great privilege to live in the hamlet in Nassau County, Long Island, New York. The hamlet seamlessly combines a massive commercial development and busy retail centers with shoreline vistas, lovely parks, tree-lined neighborhoods, and recreational amenities.

The term “Massapequa” is derived from the native Indian word “Massapeauke,” meaning “Great Water Land.” Such a reference suits the hamlet’s numerous manmade lakes in the area and the southern shore location. Here are some Massapequa real estate listings by Weichert Realtors that a family may want to consider before moving to the place.

massapequa real estateA beautiful Tudor-style Massapequa real estate property up for grabs is located in Bayview Avenue. With a list price of $525,000, the property (built in 1928) has three bedrooms, one full bath, and one half bath. The 1,900 square foot home sits on a 0.18 acre lot. Other features include hardwood floors, large rooms, skylights, granite kitchen, a deck, and a swimming pool. The owner of the house is eligible to join the Biltmore Beach Club.

Another Massapequa real estate property in the market is a simple, elegant, and imposing Colonial-style house in Richmond Avenue with a list price of $499,000. Built in 1960, the house boasts of four bedrooms, two full bathrooms, and one half bath. The size of the lot that the house sits on measures 42 feet by 100 feet. Other features include a fully-finished basement, a granite kitchen, hardwood floors, formal dining and living rooms, and a beautiful paved driveway.

A cottage-feel Massapequa real estate property can be acquired for $419,000. Made of cedar wood, the house has three bedrooms, one full bath, and one half bath. The split-level house, which was built in 1967, sits on a lot measuring 40 feet x 100 feet. Other rooms include a den, a family room, kitchen, a living room, a dining room, and a formal dining room.

Another affordable property has a list price of $399,000. Located on Clearwater Avenue, the wooden ranch-style house has six bedrooms and four full bathrooms. Built in 1953, the house sits on a lot area measuring 140 feet by 100 feet. Other features include a winding driveway, a patio, a sprinkler system, and a swimming pool. With a little tweaking, this charming wooden house can be a great place to live in for one lucky family.

A house on Linden Street would not be left out in a forest setting. With a list price of $329,999, the house boasts of two bedrooms, two full bathrooms, and an expanded cape. The home sits on a lot area of 40 feet by 100 feet. A family can never run out of choices for places to live in. All one has to do is find a competent realtor.

 

For massapequa real estate this site can be a popular choice where you get various options.

Portable Storage Container has Downsides: Why Own or Rent it Anyway?

Although having a portable storage container brings a lot of benefits, there are also some downsides in owning or renting a metal storage container. It is best to know what these drawbacks are before closing a deal. It is always a good thing to know first the things to expect and see if you can still get more benefits than disadvantages.

A Number of Downsides

Portable Storage containerRust is the number one enemy of any metal (except stainless steel) and it is the foremost foe of metal containers. You need to make sure that your metal container receives the right care and maintenance to keep it free from rust invasion. You need to apply a special treatment that will help keep the moisture off of your container to prevent rust from occurring. Always make it habit to check for possible signs of rusting and don’t waste a single second and quickly remove the rust. Your immediate and fast response can hinder the rust from invading the other areas of your container

A portable storage container is impossible to move using your bare hands because it is exceptionally heavy. If you buy or rent one, you need to make sure that the area where you want to put it is the most suitable spot in your property. Your container will be delivered to you and the company where you have rented or bought your container will employ some help from a lifter or other equipment to put your metal container on your designated spot. If you want to change the location of your container after several days, you’ll have to hire the services of a company that can do that for you and it could be costly. To avoid such trouble, find the perfect place for your container where you can be satisfied.

A metal container is way more expensive than a container made of plastic having the same size. Metal is more durable than plastic and a lot of things were needed to accomplish just to produce one metal container. Metal containers can get even more costly due to the treatment that must be applied to them to prevent rust from forming.

Is it Still Worth Renting or Owning a Metal Container?

Despite the cited downsides, the portable storage container is more economical in the long run. A plastic container won’t last for so long regardless of the amount of time you spend in making sure that it won’t get damaged. Wear and tear will eventually get to it. Plastic can become brittle and will eventually break. Plastic melts and you can’t be certain when an untoward incident like fire might occur and melt your plastic container together with your important belongings.

Metal containers, on the other hand, can withstand most forms of torture whether by nature or man-made. You only need to keep moisture out to prevent rust from emerging.

It offers better security than plastic containers. There are metal containers that come with a special security feature which is impossible to install in plastic containers.

You can rent a metal container on the spot when you need one or you can buy one if your budget permits. Most container providers don’t allow a rent-to-own option.

Things that you can do to your Metal Container

Aside from keeping your things safe and liberating your house from clutter, you can use your metal container for other purposes. You can turn your metal container into a hobby room where you can work on your scrap book, painting, and other things. At the end of the day, you don’t need to worry about tidying up the area if you have no more time to do that. You simply lock your storage container and you don’t need to worry about your work or materials and tools.

You can even turn your metal container into an extra room next to your home; just remember not to make any modifications if you are only renting your container. You can make alterations if you already own the container.

All things have their own advantages and disadvantages. Luckily, the advantages that a portable storage container gives are too precious to let go. In the end, it is still worthy to have a metal container around.

HCG as a Diet Product

HCG drops–also known as oral HCG–are used as a homeopathic remedy and are administered under the tongue. The drops are fantastic for people who wish to avoid the intramuscular injections. They’re also good for people who can’t afford the more expensive nasal spray or transdermal (absorbed through the skin) gels. In fact, HCG drops have been shown to be as effective as the other forms of the hormone. That efficacy and ease of use makes the drops a very popular form of HCG among those using the diet. The dose a person will use is based upon the amount of weight that person wishes to lose. For example, suppose a person wanted to lose between five and fourteen pounds. She would take perhaps one ounce of HCG per day for twenty-one days, in addition to following her very strict HCG diet plan. The amount any particular person takes will vary, depending on how much weight he or she wants to lose.

HCG dropsHCG injections, really, deliver the same hormone into the body. They just do it by injecting the hormone directly into the blood stream by way of the spaces in between the muscles. This method can produce very fast results for people seeking to lose weight. For some people, the desire to see fast results without having to exercise is well-worth the cost of having to inject themselves several times per day. You might think “Ouch!” but to some people, the pain is worth it. As with the drops, people using HCG injections must also follow an extremely low-calorie diet. No more than 500 calories per day. The injection form of the hormone, when used as a weight-loss therapy, was the first method for that use as described in Dr. Simeons’ book pounds and Inches. A note about the dangers of HCG injections: because they are often administered by the dieters themselves, they are often administered incorrectly.

Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) is the name of a hormone that occurs naturally in the bodies of pregnant women. Its role during pregnancy is that it helps the developing fetus to be able to convert its mothers stores of fat into energy that it (the fetus) can use for its own needs. HCG send signals to the hypothalamus (located in the brain) to use up the body’s reserves of fat. Thus the baby, who requires immense amounts of energy to fuel its rapid growth, can tap into its mother’s much larger supply of stored energy (fat) in order to meet its needs. In the 1950s, English scientist Dr. Simeons concluded that adult humans could use the same fat-burn signals that HCG provides to help them burn their own fat supplies, thus shedding excess fat from their own bodies. To that end, HCG was made available to dieters in the form of liquid drops (taken orally) and injections. Eventually, serious side effects began to show up in people who used HCG as a method for weight-loss therapy.

What to Expect from Woven Custom Lanyards

Many of those who have tried ordering custom lanyards may have encountered being asked about the specific type of lanyard that they want. If you are interested in buying one, then note that your choice should be dependent upon your preferred fabric, clasp and the type of printing method that you require. In this article, the focus will be on woven custom lanyards to help you understand what to expect if you order it and what uses it is ideal for.

Custom LanyardsTo begin with, woven custom lanyards are not actually printed. The letters and the design are instead woven into the fabric so that it becomes a part of the material itself. Because of this process, woven lanyards have several advantages and disadvantages. Starting with the advantages, the designs on woven lanyards last longer. It will only fade as the fabric starts to fade. Since the letters are not printed or stamped on top of the fabric, you will not see them peeling off after several months of use. This makes woven lanyards suitable for people who use it for outdoor purposes, like employees who must wear their identification cards as they do some field work.

Second, woven lanyards are ideal for bold designs that work best for companies that need to have their names seen clearly on the face of the lanyard. The method used in creating woven lanyards is quite similar to the one used when making an embroidery and as such, small images and designs will be difficult to create. Lanyard makers know this limitation and they convey this instantly when customers order the woven type. They do not want to end up getting complaints about certain designs not showing up clearly on the finished product. However, if they see that your design is a name, in bold letters, with a simple logo, then they will be confident to suggest that you go with woven custom lanyards.

One disadvantage of woven lanyards is that the opposite side of the fabric will not display the proper image, but instead its inverted view, similar to how it will look like when facing a mirror. The colors will be inverted as well. For example, if you use white for the font and blue for the background, the reverse side of the fabric will show blue for the font and white for the background. This is really normally a trivial matter unless there are strict branding rules that must be followed within the company that intends to use the lanyards. If such rule is not present, then there will be no problem with this minor issue. Besides, the loop of the lanyard will be designed so that the lanyard will sit around your neck with the right side of the fabric facing out.

Another disadvantage with woven lanyards is that if your design includes a diagonal line, expect it to come out as jagged rather than straight. Again, this is a limitation that is inherent with the weaving process. With newer methods, however, this is hardly noticeable but still do not expect to find a perfectly straight line.

Today, you can choose between smooth or rough woven lanyards. The difference between the two mainly lies on the texture of the fabric and the design. You can expect finer details with smooth woven lanyards. Still, it cannot weave very intricate designs. In fact, as a rule, woven lanyards work best with bold fonts and minimalist design.

Now that you know what to expect with woven lanyards, you will know exactly if this is applicable for its intended purpose. Knowing its limitations and strengths can help you make a wise decision to ensure that you do not waste your money on the wrong customized lanyards.

A Buyer’s Guide On Buying The Best Golf Putters

Among all the clubs that one uses for the game of golf, the golf putters can be considered the most important clubs, that is, in relation to scoring. Why? They can mean a win or a fail for a player. Therefore, when buying your putters, do not just settle on any kind of putters. Be wise and follow this buying guide, so that you will have the best putter for you. After all, it is your score that will be affected in the process.

What are the factors that you should consider?

1. Length of the golf putters – Considered as the most vital component, make this your priority concern when buying putters. Why? The length of the putters would get you into the correct address position. What is the correct length? The shaft should be in line with your forearms, not too short or too long.

golf putters2. Weight of the golf putters – The swing weight is also an important aspect of consideration. This could be remedied by buying a putter that has the ideal weight. What is the recommended weight? The head weight of a 35” putter usually weighs around 330 grams. If you need a 32” or 33” putter, the ideal head weight that you need to find is at 370 to 380 grams. Still, weight is a personal preference. Some players prefer the lightweight while others perform better with heavier weight.

3. The balance point – What is this? This will affect your choice of stroke. Meaning, if what you want or need is a square-to-square stroke (a stroke that is straight back and through), then what you need is a face-balanced putter. However, if you want an arc stroke (a slight curve travel by the stroke), then what you need is a toe balanced putter.

4. The design of the head – One can choose from the numerous shapes and sizes of golf putters. So, which is which? This will be more of your preference and not anything else. Is your preference a mallet head or a blade head? That is entirely up to you. Your kind of strokes could also help you decide in this area. For instance, if you like an arc stroke, then the blade putter with no sight line is for you.

5. Anchor of the putter: your belly or chest – Tremors or “yips” are common among golfers. This is not a problem because one can solve these tremors by anchoring the putter either in the belly or chest to stabilize it during a stroke. Again, what is vital here is the height and weight of the putter. To make it easier, find the perfect length and weight for you first and then add the additional length of the chest or belly. If you do not have yips, then you can just consider the conventional putter.

6. Price – Of course, you want value for you money. However, you are aware that this game is considered as an expensive hobby and so, you also expect a costly putter. Therefore,you would sometimes doubt a low-cost putter that feels right when you hold it because of its price. The real score is this: it is not always about the price. One can have golf putters that are of good quality yet are also reasonably priced.

The challenge during the moment that you are purchasing is the great variety of putters to choose from. There is only remedy to this. Try them all. You are after the “feel” of the putter. You would know that it is the one for you when it fits like a glove or, more appropriately, when the putter feels right.

Smooth and steady golf putters gets the ball drops into the hole in a better way.

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